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Texas Instruments - Inventing Learning Curve Pricing

How Texas Instruments weaponised the learning curve in semiconductor manufacturing, and then pushed it too far.

PayPal - Poisoning the Competition

Sometimes, scale advantages can come from your position in the market, not necessarily from production unit costs.

Netflix - Becoming a Large Movie Studio

How Netflix's pivot to content may be considered a defensive pursuit of economies of scale.

Ford - A Car for Everyone

What it looked like when Henry Ford discovered the fundamental principles of scale economies ... from scratch and through trial and error.

General Magic - The Future, Too Early

The first attempt at building the iPhone came two decades too early.

PayPal - The Beamers Didn't Come

How Paypal went from sending money through Palm Pilots to sending money through email.

The iPhone Keyboard - Make It or Break It

Building the first iPhone's touchscreen keyboard was a make-it-or-break-it moment for the iPhone. Succeed, and the iPhone was possible. Fail, and the iPhone would've been shelved. This is its story.

TikTok - One Very Long Year

As hyper-addictive as it is today, TikTok's success took longer than you might think.

The iPod - Apple's Introduction to Consumer Electronics

The iPod marked Apple's first successful (albeit tentative) entry into consumer electronics, and laid the way for future products.

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The Shape of a Technological Window

A look at the structure of the concept, as applied to the cases in this sequence. Read a few cases first before you read this.